Spanish Journal of Innovation and Integrity <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Spanish Journal of Innovation and Integrity (SJII)</em></strong><em> <strong>ISSN 2792-8268 </strong>is open access, a peer-reviewed platform focused on innovative research aspects of multidisciplinary issues on integration while contributing to the constant scientific research and training, so as to promote research in different fields of basic and applied sciences. <strong>Journal </strong>accepts research papers, case studies, survey papers, academic project works, scholarly articles, academic articles, original or extended versions of previously published papers in conferences, scholarly journals, and basic advances in research articles, review articles with top-level work from all areas.</em><em> <br /><br /></em><strong><em>SJII</em></strong><em> welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence in all the fields of basic and applied sciences. Submitted articles must not have been<strong> </strong>previously published or be currently under consideration for publication any place else and should report original unpublished research results. All research articles, review articles, short communications and technical notes are pre-reviewed by the editor, and if appropriate, sent for blind peer review.</em></p> <p><em>The Journal covers topics including (but not limited to): </em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>The manuscript </strong><em>number will be mailed to the corresponding author within 24 hours after submission. The reviewing process will be completed within </em><em>7</em><em> days. The manuscripts will be published online 3 days after acceptance &amp; payment and will be indexed at major academic databases.</em><em> </em></p> <p><em>On the behalf of <strong>Spanish Journal of Innovation and Integrity (SJII) ISSN 2792-8268</strong>, I would like to extend my regard to all following researchers and scholars and wish prosperity in their field.<br /><br /><strong>Spanish Journal of Innovation and Integrity</strong> Published by <strong>Indexed Research Publishing Group</strong> on the following address <strong>C. Valencia, 55, 35006, Spain.</strong><br /></em></p> Indexed Research Publishing Company en-US Spanish Journal of Innovation and Integrity 2792-8268 Car Running on Alternative Fuels Construction Analysis <p>In this article, due to the depletion of oil reserves on earth today, Use of alternative fuels in vehicles and those running on alternative fuels analysis of car structures and its importance. Oil prices are constantly increasing and the development of the types and number of hybrid vehicles today is demanding.</p> Muhammadjonov Azizbek Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-11 2024-05-11 30 1 5 Plant Pathology <p>Plant pathology or phytopathology is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).[1] Plant pathology involves the study of pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystem genetics, and management of plant diseases.</p> Dr. Anil Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-13 2024-05-13 30 6 23 Exploring Optimal Ant Movement on the John Muir Trail using Genetic Algorithms <p>This study investigates the optimization of ant movement along the John Muir Trail using genetic algorithms (GAs). The John Muir Trail, renowned for its scenic beauty and challenging terrain, offers a unique environment to study navigation strategies. Inspired by the efficient foraging behavior of ants, we employ genetic algorithms to simulate and optimize ant movement patterns. Through a combination of genetic encoding, fitness evaluation, selection, crossover, and mutation, our approach aims to uncover optimal routes for ant colonies traversing the trail. By comparing the performance of evolved solutions against traditional pathfinding methods, we demonstrate the efficacy of our GA-based approach in generating efficient ant movement strategies. Our findings not only contribute to the understanding of biological-inspired optimization in complex environments but also have implications for trail management and conservation efforts. We propose GA based ACO for JOHN MUIR TRAIL (JMTGA-ACO) method to gain best fitness function.</p> Rahul Kumar Sumit Dalal Sumiran Rohini Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-13 2024-05-13 30 24 36 Role of the Reserve Bank of India in Promoting Online and E-Commerce Transactions in India <p>The analysis highlights the substantial traffic to banking websites, indicating the strong correlation between internet usage and financial activities. A comparative study between Bank of India (BOI) and HDFC Bank sheds light on the strategies and approaches employed by banks in harnessing online banking services, focusing on factors such as turnaround time (TAT), fees, user experience, and mobile banking. The exponential growth of mobile banking in India underscores its impact on accessibility and convenience for customers, reflecting evolving consumer preferences. The paper emphasizes RBI's crucial role in fostering an environment conducive to online transactions, advocating for continued efforts in digital financial inclusion and technological innovation to sustainably support the growth of online businesses and the broader digital economy in India.</p> Tarun Sharma Dr. S. M. Choudhary Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 30 37 39 Training Language Students in Translation in the Field of Professional Communication <p>This article examines the possibilities, problems and difficulties of teaching translation in the field of professional communication to non-linguistic higher education students. The experience of teaching the translation of texts by specialty is presented, the main problems related to the organization of translation training for students of non-linguistic specialties, as well as the linguistic difficulties of various specialties are considered. A methodological cycle of teaching adaptive translation from Russian to English for students of financial specialties was presented.</p> Akbar Jaloladdino’g’li Ibragimov Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 30 40 43 Tax Regulation of Foreign Trade Operations in Uzbekistan: Analysis, Comparison and Development Prospects <p>The article provides a detailed analysis of the tax system and tax regulation of foreign trade operations in Uzbekistan. The study is based on the comparison of national tax practice with international standards and practices of the countries of the European Union, the USA and Southeast Asia. Specific measures to improve tax control and monitoring, as well as recommendations for adapting successful foreign practices to improve the efficiency of tax policy in Uzbekistan.</p> Khudzhamuradova Surayo Ibragimovna Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 30 44 50 Problems Encountered in the Translation Process and their Effective Solutions <p>This article aims to clarify the problems that arise in the process of translation, as well as the problems between closely related languages; the situation of false equivalents and the problems that can be given in translation requires the relevance of consecutive translation problems between closely related languages.</p> Norboyeva Dilafruz Jumakulovna Ahmatova Mukhlisa Ahmat kizi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 30 51 56 The Importance of the Credit-Module System in the Development of Higher Education <p>Currently, in international practice, the credit-module system of personnel training has been established in the higher education system of many developed countries in the world. Based on the experience of developed countries, the authors of the article stated the importance of the credit-module system in the development of higher education in Uzbekistan, relying on valid evidence.</p> Q. J. Mirzaev M .K. Jonuzoqov T. I. Shukurov Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 30 57 60 Herbs used in Home Remedies for Different Diseases:- Homotherapy <p>Homegrown herbal remedies</p> <p>Labels on store-bought herbs rarely reveal how plants are raised, let alone how long the ingredients are exposed to light and high temperatures while stored in their plastic containers. Grow your own to ensure the best quality and potency of your herbal remedies.</p> <p>“The primary benefit is being able to develop a relationship with that herb,” according to Jen Bredesen, an herbalist and teacher at the California School of Herbal Studies. Even novice gardeners can concoct simple home remedies such as teas and salves using Bredesen’s list of the top nine easy-to-grow medicinal herbs.</p> Dr. Kaptain K. Bajpayee Dr. Mohd. Ashaq Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-16 2024-05-16 30 61 75 Modernization of Teacher Education <p><em>This article prioritizes systemic reform of higher education, the process of training highly qualified personnel, modernization, development of the social sphere and economic sectors based on advanced educational technologies, constitution, spiritual, intellectual, creative, physical, and describes moral formation.</em></p> Mukаddаs Оtаjоnоvnа Kаrimоvа, Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-13 2024-05-13 30 76 82 Features of an Innovative Approach in the Development of Professional Potential of Primary Class Teachers <p><em>In this article, an innovative approach to the development of the professional potential of primary school teachers, aspects, interest, passion for the profession, motivation and opinions on the development of professional knowledge and skills are analyzed</em><em>.</em></p> Mehrikhon Hoshimovna Rakhmonova Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-13 2024-05-13 30 83 86 ABIOTIC FACTORS AND SCIENTIFIC-PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THEIR STUDY <p><em>Organism, atmospheric circulation, geographic zones, natural complexes, phytomelioration natural complexes, phytomelioration.</em></p> Adizova Hamida Rakhimovna. Fayziyeva Flora Abdullayevna Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-13 2024-05-13 30 87 90 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY IN THE ECONOMY AND ITS ADVANTAGES <p><em>The field of agricultural economics is expanding to cover a wide range of topics and approaches, including macroeconomics, international trade, agribusiness, environmental economics, natural resources, and international development. In this article, the organizational structure of agricultural economics and its place in the economy are highlighted through a wide range of opinions.</em></p> Sultonova Gulabxor Shoxnazimovna Ne’matov Elyorbek Boyxon o‘g‘li Sultonova Gulbaxor Shoxnazimovna Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-13 2024-05-13 30 91 94 International Human Rights Mechanisms <p>The article addresses issues related to the implementation of international mechanisms on human rights. It outlines the general description of the UN human rights bodies and the organizational principles of the UN human rights treaty bodies. It also discusses the functions and powers of the UN human rights support organs. The effectiveness of the activities of contractual bodies on human rights and their analysis as quasi-judicial bodies by the committees of the UN on human rights is emphasized for further development.</p> Choriyev Mahmudjon Ahmad o’g’li Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 95 100 Formation of Legal Basis of Activity of National Cultural Centers in Uzbekistan <p>In this article, information about the creation of national cultural centers in Uzbekistan, its progress, development history, and prospects are studied on the basis of scientific sources and the necessary conclusions are drawn. In addition, the development of national-cultural centers, the adoption of the law and other regulatory legal documents creating strong legal foundations and guarantees of national-cultural centers, scientific opinions on the essence of the laws were discussed, and an effort was made to reveal their importance today.</p> Dilshoda Kakhramonovna Maksudova Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 101 104 Improving the Management of Budgetary and Extra-Budgetary Funds in Budgetary Organizations <p>The article deals with the main aspects and problems of management of budgetary and extra-budgetary funds in budgetary organizations. The study emphasizes the importance of integrating modern information technologies, such as automated accounting and control systems, to increase the accuracy, transparency and efficiency of financial transactions. Special attention is paid to the development of financial literacy of employees and optimization of costs and resources. recommendations for improving the management of funds, including the introduction of new methods and technologies, improving the skills of employees and strengthening control over the use of funds. The conclusions of the study confirm the need for further improvement of management to ensure the financial stability and development of budgetary organizations in the current economic conditions.</p> Ramazonov Akmal Samadovich Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 105 110 Methods of Linguistic Expertise of the Text <p>In this article, the methods of linguistic examination of the translated text, the completeness of the idea expressed in the text, the semantic integrity of the text, and the completeness of the text with complete content are carried out by fully reflecting the content and selecting the title and results are given.</p> Iroda Mahmudjanovna Jalalova Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 111 114 Improving the Revaluation of Fixed Assets According to International Standards in Uzbekistan: Problems and Prospects <p>The article discusses the problems and prospects for improving the revaluation of fixed assets in Uzbekistan in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRS), in particular IAS 16. A comparative analysis of national accounting standards (NAS) and IFRS is carried out, key differences are identified and ways to overcome them are proposed. overcoming. Based on surveys and interviews with experts in the field of accounting and auditing, as well as representatives of Uzbek enterprises, the main difficulties are identified and practical recommendations for the transition to IFRS are offered. Particular attention is paid to the need to modernize information systems, professional training for accountants and auditors, as well as government support. The implementation of the proposed measures will improve the quality and transparency of financial reporting, attract foreign investment and increase the competitiveness of Uzbek companies in international markets.</p> Khatamov Kobil Khairievich Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 115 121 Immersive Learning: Exploring the Effectiveness of Vr Language Labs for English Acquisition <p>Traditional English language learning methods often struggle to provide engaging and interactive environments for practical skill development. This study explores the potential of virtual reality (VR) technology as a revolutionary approach to English acquisition. We examine the theoretical underpinnings of VR language learning and review existing research on its effectiveness in enhancing immersion, communication skills, cultural understanding, and personalized learning.</p> Abdullo Mardono`G`Li Mardonov Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 122 123 Institutional Conditions Determining the Structure of Entrepreneurship in Uzbekistan <p>The article presents a comprehensive analysis of the role of institutional factors in the formation of entrepreneurial activity in the country. Particular attention is paid to how legislation, government policies, norms and regulations influence the creation of a favourable climate for business. The study is based on data on the current state of the economic environment in Uzbekistan and the historical context of business environment reforms. It analyses, in particular, how institutional changes affect access to resources, business registration procedures, tax policy and credit opportunities. The paper identifies key problems and offers recommendations aimed at improving the institutional environment to support current and potential entrepreneurs. The analysis emphasises the importance of transparent regulations and their consistent application for sustainable private sector development. The paper also explores the prospects for synergies between public institutions and private enterprises in the context of innovative development. The author of the paper points to the potential of Uzbekistan to strengthen entrepreneurship through the implementation of targeted institutional reforms. The article concludes with the idea that further development of entrepreneurship in Uzbekistan will directly depend on the depth and consistency of institutional reforms.</p> Muminova, Elnorakhon Abdukarimovna Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 124 134 On the Team Healthy Environment in the Creation Leader and Psychological Skills of Leaders <p>Man is the greatest, the most precious and honorable of all created by Allah. He should have a place in the family and in the community. It is known that a leader is appointed from among the members of each family or community to create a friendly relationship and a healthy environment. Working with a person in order to adequately preserve his psyche, inner world and dignity remains an urgent issue today. It is now in the best interests of man to obey the leader's orders without question and to endure his "sweet" words. everyone from the thing superior being placed advanced society people for special it's not. In many cases, the concepts of leader and leader are connected with each other, that is, there are cases where they are understood as a whole. But these two concepts should be understood as one component of the other. Uzbek and world psychologists have conducted a number of works within this topic. In particular, in the world experience, V. Spivak, F. Taylor, L. Gilbreth and G. Gantt, and in the scale of our country, a number of training manuals and textbooks - studies of O. Hayitov, N. Boymurodov, I. Mahmudov exactly management and management of the field psychological features. This topic each when current and studied improved need to go felt and this process until now continue reached is coming First of all, leader and we will pay attention to the essence of the concepts of leadership.</p> Navro‘zova Nargiza Raximberdi qizi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 135 137 Historical Formation and Stages of Development of Bilingual Poetry in English Literature <p>This article, according to the information that has reached us, provides information about the existence of bilinguals of their time, the formation of bilingual history and information about the development of bilingual poetry. We know that the poem was written under the influence of the poet's enlightened views, from the choice of thematic material to the presentation system, language, and vocabulary.</p> Dinura Anuarbekqizi Seitbekova Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 138 141 Semantic-Stylistic Characteristics of Publicistic Style in Foreign Languages <p>This article provides general information about the comparative analysis of journalistic style in foreign languages. The journalistic style is characterized by a coherent and logical syntactic structure with extended links and careful paragraphs. Its emotional appeal is achieved through the use of words with emotional meaning. This style is also characterized by short expressions, sometimes they become a leading feature.</p> Sevar Ilyasovna Shomurodova Gulnoza Djambulovna Saydaliyeva Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 142 145 The Impact of Social Technologies on Improving the Efficiency of Management in the Service Sector <p>The article examines the impact of modern social technologies on the increase of managerial efficiency in the service sector. The main attention is paid to the analysis of literature and practical examples of successful application of social technologies. Such aspects as improving communication and interaction of employees, increasing motivation and involvement of personnel, as well as improving the quality of service and customer satisfaction are considered. the role of social technologies in improving management processes and achieving sustainable development of service enterprises.</p> Abdullaeva Zulfiya Izzatovna Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 146 152 Historical and Legal Analysis of Types of Punishment in Relation to Categories of Persons Prone to Committing Crimes <p>In this article, people prone to committing crimes have existed since history, the rulers of ancient times have developed effective religious and secular punishment measures against people who committed crimes or crimes, there are light and severe punishments for future criminal acts of people prone to crimes. It is explained in detail in a separate case.</p> X. A. Turabbayev Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 153 157 Improving the Methodology for Developing Self-Development Competencies in University Students <p>This article provides information on improving the methodology of developing self-development competencies of students of higher education institutions, pedagogical potential and cooperation of teachers in this process. All measures should be taken to encourage the initiative of students depending on their level of knowledge, to develop self-development competencies and to further use students in solving foreign language problems.</p> Ziyoda Maratovna Khudoyarova Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 158 160 Understanding Translation Theories: Bridging Cultures through Language <p>Translation, as a pivotal mechanism for intercultural communication, has long been the subject of extensive theoretical inquiry. This abstract provides a concise overview of key translation theories that have shaped the practice and study of translation in the English language. This abstract encapsulates the rich tapestry of translation theories, offering a glimpse into the diverse approaches and perspectives that inform the complex process of rendering meaning across languages and cultures. By understanding these theories, translators can navigate the multifaceted challenges of translation with greater insight and sensitivity, fostering meaningful cross-cultural communication and understanding.</p> Zuhra Tursinaliyevna Jabborova Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 161 164 Factors of Increasing the Performance Resource of Pneumatic Tires <p>This article highlights data on increasing the resource productivity of the condition depending on the geometric dimensions during the operation of pneumatic tires used in cotton tractors operating between rows in the agricultural sector.</p> Melibayev Maxmudjon Akbarov Saydulloxon Asqarxon o‘g‘li Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 30 165 173 STUDY OF FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE TURKESTAN GENERAL- GOVERNORATE <p><em>The article analyzes the economic and political relations of the regions Turkestan General-Governorate Government with neighboring countries - Afghanistan, Iran with points of view source studies. When covering trade relations, it reveals the essence of complex political processes. Moreover, in historically analyzed articles and monographs provide information on the internal political situation in neighboring Afghanistan, Iran, which can be used to cover domestic and foreign policy the above-mentioned countries during the study period.</em></p> Mattiyev Utkir Begmatdulobovich Khujayorova Sadokat Bakhtiyorovna Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-20 2024-05-20 30 174 177